Why study Economics? – Is Good in 2023

अर्थशास्त्र का अध्ययन (study economics) क्यों करें?

“The ideas of economists and political philosophers, both when they are right and when they are wrong, are more powerful than is commonly understood. Indeed the world is ruled by little else.”

John Maynard Keynes

“अर्थशास्त्रियों और राजनीतिक दार्शनिकों के विचार, जब वे सही होते हैं और जब वे गलत होते हैं, सामान्यरूप से समझी जाने वाली विचारों के तुलना में अधिक शक्तिशाली होते हैं। वास्तव में दुनिया पर किसी और शक्ति का ही शासन है।” — जॉन मेनार्ड कीन्स

Economics is the study of how individuals and societies choose to use the scarce resources provided by nature and previous generations. The key word in this definition is “choice”. Economics is an applied or social science. It is largely the study of how people make choices. The choices people make, when added up, translate into social choices.

अर्थशास्त्र अध्ययन है, प्रकृति और पिछली पीढ़ियों द्वारा प्रदान किए गए दुर्लभ संसाधनों के उपयोग करने के लिए व्यक्ति और समाज कैसे चुनाव करते हैं। इस परिभाषा में मुख्य शब्द ‘चयन’ है। अर्थशास्त्र एक व्यवहारिक या सामाजिक विज्ञान है। बड़े पैमाने पर यह इस बात का अध्ययन है कि लोग कैसे चुनाव करतेहैं। लोग जो विकल्प चुनते हैं, जब उन्हें जोड़ा जाता है, तो वे सामाजिक विकल्पों में परिवर्तित हो जाते हैं।

Economics is the ‘study of factors affecting income, wealth and welfare’. It is a social science that includes mathematics and statistics as well as physical sciences and links with many other disciplines. It is a social science so its application in real life is visible and continuous through many streams; Politics, education, environment, health care or simply your cost of living.

अर्थशास्त्र ‘आय, धन और कल्याण को प्रभावित करने वाले कारकों का अध्ययन’ है। यह एक सामाजिक विज्ञान है जिसमें गणित और सांख्यिकी के साथ-साथ भौतिक विज्ञान और कई अन्य विषयों के साथ संबंध शामिल हैं। यह एक सामाजिक विज्ञान है इसलिए वास्तविक जीवन में इसका अनुप्रयोग कई धाराओं केमाध्यम से दृश्यमान और निरंतर है; राजनीति, शिक्षा, पर्यावरण, स्वास्थ्य देखभाल या बस आपके रहने की लागत।

Why Study Economics

An economist’s approach must have to follows steps like – Abstraction and simplification to find the problem; analysis and reason; organize, absorb, generate, analyze and evaluate qualitative and quantitative data; Criticism of the figure given its real-life context; And finally make a strategy for the problem, understand the limitations as well as its productivity.

Economics is about a different way of thinking and looking at the world. You can apply the economic way of thinking to almost everything, not just business or finance and so on. There are four main reasons to study economics: to learn how to think, to understand society, to understand global affairs, and to be an informed voter.

एक अर्थशास्त्री के दृष्टिकोण को निम्न चरणों का पालन करता है – समस्या को खोजने के लिए सार और सरलीकरण; विश्लेषण और कारण; गुणात्मक और मात्रात्मक आंकड़े को व्यवस्थित, अवशोषित, निर्माण, विश्लेषण और मूल्यांकन; इसके वास्तविक जीवन के संदर्भ को देखते हुए आंकड़े की आलोचना; और अंतमें समस्या के लिए एक नीति बनाएं, सीमाओं के साथ-साथ इसकी उत्पादकता को भी समझें।

अर्थशास्त्र सोचने और दुनिया को देखने के एक अलग तरीके के बारे में है। आप सोचने के आर्थिक तरीके कोलगभग हर चीज पर लागू कर सकते हैं, केवल व्यापार या वित्त और ऐसे ही नहीं।अर्थशास्त्र का अध्ययन करने के चार मुख्य कारण हैं: सोचने का तरीका सीखना, समाज को समझना, वैश्विक मामलों को समझना और एक जागरूक मतदाता बनना।

To learn a way of thinking

Probably the most important reason for studying economics is to learn a way of thinking. A good way to approach economics is to understand three of its most fundamental concepts: opportunity cost, marginalism, and efficient markets. It is a good bet that after studying economics, you will use these concepts every day in making decisions.

संभवतः अर्थशास्त्र पढ़ने का सबसे महत्वपूर्ण कारण सोचने का तरीका सीखना है। अर्थशास्त्र तक पहुँचने काएक अच्छा तरीका इसकी तीन सबसे मौलिक अवधारणाओं को समझना है: अवसर लागत, सीमांतवाद औरकुशल बाजार। यह अच्छी बात है कि अर्थशास्त्र का अध्ययन करने के बाद आप निर्णय लेने में प्रतिदिन इनअवधारणाओं का प्रयोग करेंगे।

Opportunity Cost

The best alternative that we forgo, or give up, when we make a choice or a decision is called the opportunity cost of that decision.

जब अर्थशास्त्री किसी संसाधन की “अवसर लागत” का उल्लेख करते हैं, तो उनका मतलब उस संसाधन केअगले-उच्चतम-मूल्यवान वैकल्पिक उपयोग का मूल्य होता है। यदि, उदाहरण के लिए, आप एक फिल्म देखनेके लिए समय और पैसा खर्च करते हैं, तो आप उस समय को घर पर एक किताब पढ़ने में खर्च नहीं कर सकतेहैं, और आप पैसे को किसी और चीज़ पर खर्च नहीं कर सकते हैं।

Economic Policy

Economic theory helps us understand how the world works, but the formulation of economic policy requires a second step. We must have objectives. What do we want to change? Why? What is good and what is bad about the way the system is operating? Can we make it better?

आर्थिक सिद्धांत हमें यह समझने में मदद करता है कि दुनिया कैसे काम करती है, लेकिन आर्थिक नीति केनिर्माण के लिए दूसरे चरण की आवश्यकता होती है। हमारे पास उद्देश्य होने चाहिए। हम क्या बदलना चाहते हैं ? क्यों ? सिस्टम जिस तरह से काम कर रहा है, उसके बारे में क्या अच्छा है और क्या बुरा ? क्या हम इसे बेहतरबना सकते हैं ?

Such questions force us to be specific about the grounds for judging one outcome superior to another. What does it mean to be better? Four criteria are frequently applied in making these judgments:

Criteria for judging economic outcomes:

  • Efficiency
  • Equity
  • Growth
  • Stability

In economics, efficiency means allocative efficiency. An efficient economy is one that produces what people want at the least possible cost. While efficiency has a fairly precise definition that can be applied with some degree of rigor, equity (fairness) lies in the eye of the beholder. Economic growth is an increase in the total output of an economy. If output grows faster than the population, output per capita rises and standards of living increase. Economic stability refers to the condition in which national output is growing steadily, with low inflation and full employment of resources.

इस तरह के प्रश्न हमें एक परिणाम को दूसरे से श्रेष्ठ मानने के आधार के बारे में विशिष्ट होने के लिए मजबूरकरते हैं। बेहतर होने का क्या मतलब है? इन निर्णयों को बनाने में अक्सर चार मानदंड लागू होते हैं:

आर्थिक परिणामों को आंकने के लिए मानदंड:

  • दक्षता
  • हिस्सेदारी
  • विकास
  • स्थिरता

अर्थशास्त्र में, दक्षता का अर्थ आवंटन दक्षता है। एक कुशल अर्थव्यवस्था वह है जो कम से कम संभावितलागत पर लोगों की इच्छित वस्तु का उत्पादन करती है। जबकि दक्षता की काफी सटीक परिभाषा है जिसेकुछ हद तक कठोरता के साथ लागू किया जा सकता है, इक्विटी (निष्पक्षता) देखने वाले की आंखों में निहितहै। आर्थिक विकास एक अर्थव्यवस्था के कुल उत्पादन में वृद्धि है। यदि उत्पादन जनसंख्या की तुलना में तेजीसे बढ़ता है, तो प्रति व्यक्ति उत्पादन बढ़ता है और जीवन स्तर में वृद्धि होती है। आर्थिक स्थिरता उस स्थिति कोसंदर्भित करती है जिसमें कम मुद्रास्फीति और संसाधनों के पूर्ण रोजगार के साथ राष्ट्रीय उत्पादन लगातार बढ़रहा है।

Summary

Studying the economy, and learning more about how it functions. Thinking concretely about their personal role and stake in the economy (rather than abstract indicators like gross domestic product (GDP), stock markets, or foreign exchange). 

अर्थव्यवस्था का अध्ययन करना, और यह कैसे कार्य करता है, इसके बारे में अधिक सीखना।अर्थव्यवस्था में उनकी व्यक्तिगत भूमिका और हिस्सेदारी के बारे में ठोस रूप से सोचना (सकल घरेलू उत्पाद(जीडीपी), शेयर बाजार, या विदेशी मुद्रा जैसे अमूर्त संकेतकों के बजाय)।

Recognizing that the economy embodies distinct groups of people with distinct interests, and that economics itself reflects those distinctions and conflicts. Economics is not a neutral, technical discipline.

यह स्वीकार करते हुए कि अर्थव्यवस्था अलग-अलग हितों वाले लोगों के अलग-अलग समूहों का प्रतीक है, और यह कि अर्थशास्त्र स्वयं उन भेदों और संघर्षों को दर्शाता है। अर्थशास्त्र एक तटस्थ, तकनीकी अनुशासन नहीं है।

Being ready to challenge, when necessary, the way “expert” economists explain the economy and (even more dangerously) tell us how to improve it.The economy is too important to be left to the economists. Ordinary people have valuable economic knowledge – knowledge that’s usually ignored by the experts. More importantly, the analysis and advice of the experts is all too often compromised by their position in the economy they are telling us how to manage.

Everyone has a stake in the economy. Everyone has economic interests they need to identify and protect. Learning about economics will help them understand where they fit into the bigger system, and help them fight for a better deal.

चुनौती देने के लिए तैयार रहना, जब आवश्यक हो, जिस तरह से “विशेषज्ञ” अर्थशास्त्री अर्थव्यवस्था कीव्याख्या करते हैं और (इससे भी खतरनाक तरीके से) हमें बताते हैं कि इसे कैसे सुधारना है।अर्थव्यवस्था बहुत महत्वपूर्ण है जिसे अर्थशास्त्रियों पर नहीं छोड़ा जा सकता। साधारण लोगों के पास मूल्यवान आर्थिक ज्ञान होता है – वह ज्ञान जिसे आमतौर पर विशेषज्ञ अनदेखा कर देते हैं। 

इससे भी महत्वपूर्ण बात यह है कि विशेषज्ञों के विश्लेषण और सलाह को अक्सर अर्थव्यवस्था में उनकी स्थिति से समझौता किया जाता है, वे हमें बता रहे हैं कि कैसे प्रबंधन करना है। अर्थव्यवस्था में सबकी हिस्सेदारी है। सभी के आर्थिक हित हैं जिनकी उन्हें पहचान करने और उनकी रक्षा करने की आवश्यकता है। अर्थशास्त्र के बारे में सीखने सेउन्हें यह समझने में मदद मिलेगी कि वे बड़ी व्यवस्था में कहां फिट बैठते हैं, और उन्हें बेहतर सौदे के लिए लड़ने में मदद मिलेगी।

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